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【西南研究】秦红增|中越边境口岸型城镇化路径探析

发文单位:   发文时间:2018-02-02

中越边境口岸型城镇化路径探析

秦红增

 

摘要:边境城镇化是国家新型城镇化的重要组成部分, 自20世纪90年代以来, 随着沿边地区的开发开放, 口岸成为边境地区城镇化最主要的动力。文章在对中越边境沿线城镇进行实地调研的基础上, 提炼出口岸与城市相融合、前岸中区后市以及口岸小镇这三个口岸型城镇化发展模式, 并在此基础上, 对口岸型城镇发展面临的问题及解决对策进行探讨, 以期进一步促进中越边境口岸型城镇化的发展, 同时, 对其他边境地区口岸型城镇的发展有所借鉴。

关键词: 中越边境 边境口岸 口岸贸易 城镇化路径


一、口岸与口岸型城镇的关联性

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除港口城市外, 中国古代早期就存在的关市无论在形式还是功能上都类似于现代的陆路口岸。周代文献《周礼·天官》九赋中就有“关市之赋”, 王尔敏先生在其著作中曾指出“周代商贾, 固然点出市场之地域与经营时段, 而当列邦分立, 外来之商货与输出之商货, 实往来频繁, 有一重要官职, 不在市场, 而远在边鄙, 却是商贸锁钥, 这就是‘司关’一职, 亦载在《周礼》。”  可见“通关互市”这一现象源自于古代邦国之间互通商贸的需求。但多数人对于古代关市的认知则是追溯到汉代, 西汉对匈奴设有关市, 以内地的缯絮﹑金﹑钱﹑米﹑蘗酒等交换匈奴的牛马﹑裘革, 《后汉书·西域传》中用“骏马奔驰, 不绝于时月;胡商贩客, 日款于塞下”来形容古丝绸之路兴盛的景象, 至宋代还专门设有“榷场”用于与西夏和辽的开关互市, 设三大博易场, 是边境边民广泛参与的贸易集市。进入近代, 西方列强用坚船利炮强行打开了中国半封闭的大门, 强迫清政府签订了《南京条约》《望厦条约》《黄埔条约》《马关条约》等一系列不平等条约, 开放广州、厦门、福建、宁波、上海等通商口岸共达77处, 这些口岸开放的一个重要结果就是涌现出一系列口岸城市和城镇, 特别是广大西南、西北内陆边疆地区兴起的一批陆路商埠城市, 如西南地区广西的龙州、云南的河口、思茅、蒙自, 北方地区的张家口、库伦, 西北地区甘肃的嘉峪关, 新疆的喀什等,这些口岸城市 (镇) 与沿江沿海两条贸易港口城市 (镇) 轴带相结合共同组成了具有半殖民经济属性的贸易商埠体系, 开启了中国城市的近代化进程。时至今日, 上述中的大多数口岸依旧是其城市、城镇发展的最强动力, 通过口岸发展来扩大贸易、吸引资本、兴建产业、聚集人口不仅是沿海、沿江地区, 更是沿边及部分内陆地区实现城镇化的主要路径。

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二、中越边境区域特点与口岸型城镇特色

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ERSHIKOUAN、BIANDAOMIJI, BIANMAOFAZHANQIANLIDA。ZHONGYUEBIANJINGXIANZHANG1450GONGLI, QIZHONG, GUANGXIYUYUENANLUDIBIANJINGXIANZHANG1020GONGLI, YANBIANYIDAIFENBUYOU8GEXIAN (SHI、QU) , YUNNANYUYUENANLUDIBIANJINGXIANZHANG430GONGLI,YANBIANYIDAIFENBUYOU7GEXIAN。ZHONGYUEBIANJINGZAIZHANGDUSHANGSUIBUJIZHONGHA、ZHONGMENGDENGBIANJINGDIQU, DANLIANGGUOXIANGLINQUYUZAIDIXINGSHANGBINGWUGAOSHANDAHEDEZULAN, SHUANGFANGRENMINGOUTONGWANGLAIYEBUSHOUJIJIEZHIXIANZHI。KOUANSHULIANGZHONGDUO、LEIXINGFENGFU、XIANGHUCHUANLIAN, BIANMINHUSHIDIANFENBUGUANGFAN。JIEZHIMUQIAN, ZHONGYUEBIANJINGDIQUGONGYOU11GEYILEIKOUAN、10GEERLEIKOUAN、50DUOGEBIANMINHUSHIDIANYIJISHUBAITIAOBIANDAO, ZAICIJICHUSHANG, FAZHANXINGCHENGLEDONGXING-MANGJIE、PINGXIANG-TONGDENG、SHUIKOU-TUOLONG、AIDIAN-ZHIMA、SHUOLONG-BANYUE、LONGBANG-CHALING、PINGMENG-SUJIANG、HEKOU-LAOJIEBADAKUAJINGJINGJIHEZUOQU, QIEKUAHEQUDEFAZHANGEJUTESE, RUDONGXING-MANGJIEWEIZHONGGUO-DONGMENGCHURUJINGRENYUANZUIDUODEKOUAN, PINGXIANG-TONGDENGWEISHUIGUOJINCHUKOULIANGZUIDADEKOUAN,SHUOLONG-BANYUEWEIZUIDAKUAJINGLVYOUHEZUOKOUAN, LONGBANG-CHALINGWEIZHONGYUEZUIDAKUANGCHANMAOYIKOUAN。

SANSHIRENYUANLIUDONGXINGDA。SHOUXIANSHICHUANTONGYIYISHANGDESHANGMAOLIUDONG, ZIGUYILAI, ZHONGYUEBIANJINGYOUQISHIGUANGXIDIQU, YINSHUILUJIAOTONGBIANJIE, WULUNGUANFANGHAISHIMINJIAN,MAOYIWANGLAIPINFANBUDUAN, ZHIZHIJINRI, LIANGGUOJIANDEKAIFANGHEZUOCUSHIZHEIYIQUNTIBUDUANKUODA, DUOSHUGUOJIAYILEIKOUANDIQUCHENGZHENDELIUDONGRENKOUSHULIANGYICHAOGUOYUANZHUMIN。QICI, JINJINIANLAI, SUIZHEBIANJING、KUAJINGLVYOUDEXINGQI, BIANJINGRENKOULIUDONGCHENGXIANCHUXINLIANGDIAN。MEIDAOJIEJIARI, YOURENRUCHAO, BIANJINGLVYOUBANZHENGCHENGXIANJINGPENTAISHI,RUZAI2015NIAN, DONGXINGJIEDAIYOUKE671WANRENCI;DONGXINGKOUANCHURUJINGRENSHUDA615WANRENCI, SHIZHONGYUECHURUJINGRENSHUZUIDUODEKOUAN。CHUSHANGSHUWAI, YINPILINFADAQUYUZHUJIANGSANJIAOZHOU, ZHONGYUEBIANJINGDIQULAODONGLILIUSHIWENTIJIAOWEIYANZHONG, ZAOYIWUFAMANZUBENDIQUNONGYE、JIAGONGZHIZAOYE、FUWUYEFAZHANDEYONGRENXUYAO, ERYUENANQIAQIAYUZHONGGUOXIANGFAN, LAODONGLIGUOSHENGDEWENTIJIAOWEIYANZHONG, YINCI, BUSHAOYUENANBIANMINJINRUZHONGGUOQIYEDAGONG。WEILEGUIFANGUANLI, ZHONGYUESHUANGFANGBUDUANTANTAOKUAGUOWUGONGDEKEXINGXING, 2015NIAN7YUE, DONGXINGGUOJIAZHONGDIANKAIFAKAIFANGSHIYANQUQIDONGLEKUAJINGLAOWUHEZUOSHIDIAN, BINGYIPIZHUNDUOJIAQIYESHIDIAN, XIYINLE1000DUOMINGYUENANBIANMINZAISHIYANQUWUGONG, ZHEIYEYIWEIZHEWEILAIZHONGYUEKUAJINGWUGONGJIANGCHENGWEICHANGTAI, JINYIBUJIADALEBIANJINGRENYUANDELIUDONGXING。

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三、中越边境特色口岸型城镇化的三个模式

从改革开放初期“积极发展小城镇”到20世纪末“促进小城镇健康发展”, 再到当前国家新型城镇化重要步骤的“特色小镇”, 中国城镇化的进程一直不断推进, 且定位更加准确、内涵更加深刻。随着国家综合国力的提升, 原本发展滞后的边疆地区, 如今不仅成为国家战略的重要组成部分, 亦是未来最具发展空间和活力的区域。因此, 边境村寨、城镇作为沿边开发开放的载体与根基, 如何更好地、因地制宜地推进其城镇化进程, 是当前面临的重要任务。近几年来, 学界对相关议题的研究热度不断上升, 一批学者深入边疆地区, 对边疆的城镇化进行实地调研, 其中口岸经济对于城镇发展的牵引作用成为学界讨论的热点, 学者们认为缘于边境口岸的边贸经济形态能够为区域城镇化进程提供强有力的动力, 依托于边贸经济的口岸型城镇建设, 已经成为改革开放以来西南边疆民族地区小城镇建设的便捷途径或特色模式。口岸综合实力是城镇化发展的重要基础,  而口岸自身情况, 包括产业发展、劳动力状况、口岸的运用与结构等是城镇化发展的重要动力, 也即口岸商业贸易的繁荣, 除有助于促进人口转移外, 也有力促进了许多新兴行业的诞生, 其所带来的这些根本性变革, 也是城镇化水平提高的一个重要表现, 为此, 需要充分认识、培育和发挥边贸经济的作用, 促进边境口岸小城镇的可持续发展。

CONGXIANYOUYANJIULAIKAN, XUEJIEDUIKOUANXINGCHENGZHENDEYANJIUHAIBUGOUSHENRU, SHANGTINGLIUYUKOUANJINGJI、GONGNENGDUICHENGZHENJIANSHEFAZHANFAHUIDEJIJIZUOYONG, SHISHISHANG, ZAIKOUANXINGCHENGZHENFAZHANJIAOHAODEZHONGYUEBIANJINGDIQU, KOUANXINGCHENGZHENFAZHANDECHAYIYICHUBUXIANXIAN, CHENGXIANCHUBUTONGDEFAZHANMOSHI, BIZHERENWEIDUIYUZHEIXIEMOSHIYINGJISHIZONGJIEFENXI, CONGERGENGSHENRUDILEJIEKOUANXINGCHENGZHENFAZHANXIANZHUANG, BINGDUIQIZONGTIDEFAZHANQUSHIZUOCHUYUPAN。TONGGUODUIZHONGYUEBIANJINGKOUANXINGCHENGZHENDEDIAOCHA, BIZHERENWEIKOUANXINGCHENGZHENDEFAZHANKEFENWEIRUXIASANGEMOSHI:

(YI) KOUANYUCHENGSHIXIANGRONGHE

“ANZAICHENGZHONG, CHENGJISHIAN”KEYISHUOSHIKOUANYUCHENGSHIXIANGRONGHEZHEIYIFAZHANMOSHIZUIWEITUCHU、XIANMINGDEWAIZAIXINGTAI, ZHEILEIFAZHANMOSHIDEKOUANCHENGSHITONGCHANGYONGYOULIANJIEGUONEIWAIDEQUWEIYOUSHI, JIAOTONGJIAOWEIBIANJIE, YUZHIXIANGDUIDELINGUOBIANJINGQUYUSHEHUIJINGJIFAZHANSHUIPINGJIAOGAO, MAOYIHUBUXINGQIANG, YINER, BIANJINGMAOYISHIFENFANRONG, KOUANKUAGUOQUYUHEZUONEIRONGFENGFU。KOUANCHENGSHIDEFAZHANKEFUSHEDAONEILUDUOGEFUDICHENGSHI, JUJILEGELEIZIYUAN, CHENGWEIQUYUNEIRENLIU、WULIU、XINXILIU、ZIJINLIUDEJIAOHUIZHIDI, CHENGSHICHENGXIANCHUSHIFENMINGXIANDESHANGYEXING、LIUDONGXINGDENGTEDIAN。XIANGJIAOYUQITAFAZHANMOSHIDEKOUANXINGCHENGZHEN, CIMOSHIDEKOUANGUIMOGENGDA、SHESHIGENGWANSHAN、GONGNENGGENGQUANMIAN, BIANJINGMAOYIDEHUOWUZHONGLEIGENGDUO、SHULIANGGENGDA, CONGERSHIBIANMAODEDIWEIYOUWEITUXIAN, CHENGWEIQIZUIZHUYAODEZHIZHUCHANYE。KOUANJIANSHEJIBIANMAOYUNXINGDAIDONGLEYUNSHU、SHANGMAODENGYIXILIEFUWUCHANYEDEXINGQI, ERZHEIXIECHANYEYOUYUNYUCHULEDUOZHONGDUOYANGDEZHIYE, SHISHUANGFANGBIANMIN、SHIMINDEZHIYEXUANZEYEGENGJIADUOYUANHUA, RICHANGWANGLAIGENGWEIPINFAN, CONGZHONGKEJIANKOUANYUCHENGSHIZHENGTIFAZHANDEJIEHEDUSHIJIAOGAODE, ZHONGYUEBIANJINGZHEILEIMOSHIDEKOUANCHENGSHIZHUYAOWEIDONGXINGSHIYIJIHEKOUYAOZUZIZHIXIAN。

ANLI1SHUIGUOJISANDI——HEKOU

HEKOUYAOZUZIZHIXIANWEIYUYUNNANDONGNANBU, GEHONGHEYUYUENANLAOJIESHI、GULIUSHIXIANGWANG, JIAOTONGFEICHANGBIANLI, DIANYUETIELU、KUNHEGONGLU、HONGHEHANGDAODENGDUOZHONGYUNSHUFANGSHIZAICIXINGCHENGSHUNIUYUYUENANDUIJIE, HEKOUKOUANSUODUILAOJIEKOUANSHIYUENANBEIBUWEIYIYIGESHENGHUICHENGSHIKOUAN, SHIYUNNANSHENGNAIZHIXINANDIQUTONGXIANGDONGNANYA、NANTAIPINGYANGZUIBIANJIEDELULUTONGDAO。YINHEKOUQIHOUSHUREDAIJIFENGYULINWENREXINGQIHOU, SHANQUZHANQIZONGMIANJIDE97.76%, YINCI,ZHONGZHIYEJIAOWEIBORUO, ZHUYAOZHONGZHIXIANGJIAO、XIANGJIAO、BOLUOSANZHONGREDAINONGZUOWU, CIWAI, SHANQUDIXINGSHIQIYEQIANQITOURUZIBENJIAODA, YINER, QUANXIANGONGYEJIHUWEILING, SUIRANZAINONGYE、GONGYEDEFAZHANSHANGDOUBUZHANJUYOUSHI, DANKOUANDEKAITONG, BIANMAODEWANGLAISHI“XIANCHENGJIKOUAN, KOUANJIXIANCHENG”DEHEKOUYITUOBIANMAO、KUAJINGLVYOUFAZHANCHENGWEIZHONGYUEBIANJINGXIANYUNNANDUANZUIFANRONGDEKOUANXINGCHENGZHEN。MUQIAN, HEKOUBIANMINHUSHIJIAOYIDESHANGPINJINKOUSHANGPINZHUYAOYOU:HAICHANPIN (BINGDONGGUIYU、BINGDONGBAOYU、BINGDONGPANGXIE、XIANHUOLONGXIA) , JIANGUOLEI (YAOGUO、KAIXINGUO、HETAO, XINGREN) , SHUIGUOLEI (XIGUA、HUOLONGGUO、LIZHI、XIANGJIAO) 。CHUKOUSHANGPINZHUYAOYOUERTONGWANJU、TULIAO、DIANPINGCHEPEIJIAN、RIYONGPIN、XIAOJIADIANDENG。JINCHUKOUSHANGPINZHUYAOYOUTIEKUANGSHA、MUSHU、MUPIAN、SHUIGUO、SHUCAI、LIUSUANAN、SHENGSHIGAODENG, QIZHONG, SHUIGUO、SHUCAIZUOWEIZHUYAOMAOYIHUOWU,ZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGDAIDONGLEHEKOUJIZHOUBIANDIQUDEFAZHAN。YISHUIGUOMAOYIWEILI, YINYUENANZHUYAOSHUREDAIQIHOU, REDAISHUIGUOZIYUANFENGFU, QUENANYISHENGZHANGYAREDAI、WENDAISHUIGUO, HEKOUSUIWUFAZHONGZHI, DANQISUOZAIDEHONGHEZHOUDICHUYUNNANDONGNANBU, SHUYUYAREDAIJIFENGQIHOUQU, LITIQIHOUMINGXIAN,SHUIGUOZIYUANSHIFENFENGFU, RUMILEDEPUTAO, MENGZIDESHILIU, SHIPING、JIANSHUIDEGANJU, LUXIDEXINGZIHELI,DENGDENG, YINCI, ZHONGYUESHUANGFANGSHUIGUOMAOYIDEPINZHONG、JIJIEDEHUBUXINGJIQIANG, SHIHEKOUCHENGWEIZHONGYAODESHUIGUOCHUKOUKOUAN。

ZAIHEKOUSHUIGUOPIFASHICHANG, MEITIANZAOSHANGBADIANSHIFENZHIJIUDIANBAN, SHIJIAOYIDEGAOFENGQI, YUENANBIANMINTONGGUANHOUQIANWANGSHUIGUOPIFASHICHANGGOUMAISUOXUSHANGPIN, YUANNEITINGMANDEXIAOHUOCHEDOULAIZIYUZHOUBIANXIANFEN, SHUIGUOMAIKONGHOUJIUKEHUIJIA, KAIYOUDIANPUDEDUOWEIGUANGDONG、HUNAN、SICHUANDENGDICONGSHIDUONIANSHUIGUOJINCHUKOUDAIBANSHENGYIDELAOBAN, TAMENDUOCONGKUNMINGJINHUO, JIANGSHANXIDEPINGGUO、XINJIANGHAMIGUADENGWENDAISHUIGUOXIAOWANGYUENAN, HUOJIANGYUENANSHUIGUOLIZHIDENGXIAOWANGNEIDIZHONGQING、ZHANGSHADENGDI。CONGSHISHUIGUODAIBANXINGYE20YUNIANDEYUANLAOBANGAOSUWOMEN, YUANNEISHANGHUMENMEIJIAMEITIANDOUYOUJISHIDUNDESHUIGUOXIAOWANGYUENAN, CHUKOUSHUIGUOYICHEKEHUODETUISHUI2000DUOYUAN, ZHONGGUODESHUIGUOZHUANGXIEGONGJIBENDOULAIZIYULINJINDEMAGUANXIAN, MEIDUN20YUAN, YITIANPINGJUNKEZHUANDAOLIANGBAIDAOSANBAIYUAN, HUOWUDAOYUENANHOUYEYOUYIPIZHUANMENDEBANYUNGONG, GECONGYEQUNTISHOURUSHIFENKEGUAN。KEJIANHEKOUDESHUIGUOMAOYIDAIDONGLESHUANGFANGBIANMINDEJIUYECHUANGYEYIJIZHOUBIANDIQUSHUIGUOZHONGZHIYEDEFAZHAN, QITAMAOYIHUOWUYISHIRUCI。YINCI, WEIRAOKOUANHUOWUMAOYI、LVYOUDENG, HEKOUSHANGMAOFANRONG, ZHIYEQUNTIDUOYANGQIEHUWEIYITUO, GOUCHENGCHENGZHENFAZHANBUKEQUESHAODEYIBUFEN, CHENGWEI“KOUANXINGSHI”DEDIANXINGDAIBIAO。 (DIAOCHASHIJIAN:2016NIAN7YUE4RI-7YUE6RI, 2017NIAN1YUE31RI-2YUE2RI)

(ER) QIANANZHONGQUHOUSHI

顶呱刮彩票网ZAIQIANANZHONGQUHOUSHIZHEIYIMOSHIZHONG, XIANRANKOUANYUCHENGSHIZHONGXINZAIDILIWEIZHISHANGBINGBUXIANG“ANZAICHENGZHONG, CHENGJISHIAN”MOSHINEIYANGTIEJIN, DANKOUANDUICHENGSHIFAZHANYIRANFAHUIZHEJUZUQINGZHONGDEZUOYONG。CIMOSHIDEHEXINZAI“ZHONGQU”, ZHUYAOZHIKOUANJIAGONGQUHEBIANMAOSHICHANG,TAMENSHILIANJIEKOUANYUCHENGSHI (ZHEN) DENIUDAI, KESHIKOUANJIANSHEYUCHENGSHI (ZHEN) FAZHANXINGCHENGLIANGXINGHUDONG。YIFANGMIAN, JIAGONGQU、ZHUANYESHICHANGDEFAZHANZUIZHIJIEDEYINGXIANGJIUSHIZENGDALEKOUANDETONGHUOLIULIANG, TUIDONGLEBIANMAOJINGJIDEKUAISUFAZHAN;LINGYIFANGMIAN, FENGFUYOUHUALEKOUANGONGNENG, CUJINLEKOUANZISHENDEFAZHAN;CIWAI, HAIYOUZHUYUDANGDITESECHANYEDEPEIYU, ERZHEIYITESECHANYEBUJINJINJUXIANYUKOUANJIAGONG, HAIJIANGTUOZHANDAODANGDINONGYE、SHANGMAOYEDENGDIYI、DISANCHANYE, CONGERYOUHUACHENGSHI (ZHEN) DECHANYEJIEGOU, ZENGJIAJIUYEGANGWEI, ZUIZHONGSHIXIANCHENGSHIDEQUANMIANFAZHAN。ZONGTIERYAN, ZHEILEIKOUANXINGCHENGZHENDEFAZHANSILUSHI, ZAICHONGFENFAHUIKOUANDATONGDAOGONGNENGDEJICHUSHANG, JIAKUAIKOUANYOUTONGDAOXINGXIANGJIAGONGXINGDEZHUANXINGSHENGJI, JINYIBUZHUANGDAKOUANJINGJI, FAZHANBIANJINGJIAGONGCHANYE, DAZAOTESECHANYE, TISHENGCHENGSHICHANYECENGCI, CHENGSHIDEZHENGTIFAZHANYOUWEIKOUANJINGJIDEZHUANGDADIANDINGLEGENGWEIJIANSHIDEJICHU, CONGERSHICHENGSHIJIANSHEYUKOUANFAZHANCHENGXIANCHUHUWEIYITUO, XIANGHUCUJINDEJINMILIANXI。ZHEIYIMOSHIDEKOUANXINGCHENGZHENTONGCHANGYONGYOUYIDINGDEQUWEIYOUSHIYIJIWANSHANDEWULIUCANGCHU、KOUANYUANQUSHESHI, NENGGOUXIYINYIPIJIAGONGQIYEDELUODI, BINGJIANLIQIGELEIZHUANYESHICHANG, XINGCHENGQIANANZHONGQUHOUSHIDECHENGSHIBUJU, ZAIZHONGYUEBIANJINGSHANGZHEILEIMOSHIDEKOUANXINGCHENGZHENSHULIANGJIAODUO, RUPINGXIANGSHI、AIDIANZHEN、LONGZHOUXIAN、JINGXISHIDENG。

ANLI2DONGNANYAZHONGYAOCAIBIANMAOSHICHANG——AIDIANZHEN

AIDIANKOUANWEIYUGUANGXICHONGZUOSHININGMINGXIAN, YUYUENANZHIMAKOUANXIANGDUI, ZIKOUANKAIFANGYILAI, BIANMAOHONGHUO, JINCHUKOUHUOWUFANDUO, ZUOWEIGUANGXIDIYIGEHUODEGUOWUYUANPIZHUNDEZHONGYAOCAIJINCHUKOUKOUAN, JINGGUODUONIANPEIYU, ZHONGYAOCAIYISHIAIDIANKOUANZUIDAZONGJIAOYISHANGPIN, XIYINCHAOGUO80JIAZHONGCAOYAOJINCHUKOUMAOYIQIYE、150DUOJIAJINGYINGZHONGYAOCAIDESHANGHUYUNJIAIDIAN, XINGCHENGZHONGCAOYAOZHUANYEJIAOYIQU, CHENGWEIGUANGXILIANJIEYUENANNAIZHIDONGMENGGUIMOZUIDA、PINZHONGZUIDUODEDONGNANYAZHONGYAOCAIBIANMAOSHICHANG。YITUOZHONGCAOYAODEBIANMAOYOUSHI, ZHONGCAOYAOYICHENGWEININGMINGZUIJUTESEYIJIFAZHANQIANLIDECHANYE, 2012NIAN, TOUZIJIN10YIYUANDEZHONGYUEBIANJINGZHONGCAOYAOSHANGMAOWULIUXIANGMULUOHUAIDIAN, SHIAIDIANKOUANSHOUGEJI“ZHANSHI、JIAOYI、JIAGONG、ZHONGZHUAN、CANGCHU、LENGLIAN、WULIU”YUYITIDEZONGHEXINGBIANMAOJIAOYIJISANDI, QIZHONG,ZHONGYAOCAIJIAGONGZHONGXINJIANGWEIKEHUDEXUYAOTIGONGHUOWUFENZHUANG、ZHENGLI、CUJIAGONGDENGDUOXIANGFUWU,

SHICHANGJIANCHENGYUNYINGHOU, PINGJUNNIANJIAOYIEJIANGDA100YIYUANYISHANG。CIWAI, ZAIZHONGCAOYAOJINCHUKOUMAOYIDEDAIDONGXIA, NINGMINGZHONGCAOYAODEZHONGZHIYEYEZHUJIANXINGCHENGGUIMO, JIANCHENGYUGUI、SHAREN、SHAJIANGDENGZHONGCAOYAOZHONGZHIJIDI。RUJIN, NINGMINGZHONGZHIZHONGCAOYAODEMIANJICHAOGUO4WANMU, YIAIDIANWEIZHONGXINDE“ZHONGZHI、CHUKOU、JIAGONG”WEIYITIDEDAXINGZHONGCAOYAOCHANYEJIDIYICHUBUXINGCHENG。 (DIAOCHASHIJIAN:2015NIAN8YUE)

(SAN) KOUANXIAOZHEN

顶呱刮彩票网KOUANXIAOZHENTONGCHANGWEIYUDILIWEIZHIJIAOWEIPIANPIDESHANQU, MINZUZHONGDUO, QUNSHANLIANMIAN, DIXINGFUZA, JIAOTONGBISAI, CHENGZHENCHANYEJIEGOUJIAOWEIDANYI, QUESHAOYOUSHICHANYE, CHENGZHENJIANSHENANDUDA, FAZHANSUDUHUANMAN, DANYEZHENGYINWEIRUCI, BIANMAODUICHENGZHENFAZHANDEDAIDONGZUOYONGGENGJIATUCHU。SUIRANYUSHANGSHULIANGZHONGKOUANXINGCHENGZHENFAZHANMOSHIXIANGBI, KOUANXIAOZHENZAIKOUANGUIMO、GONGNENG, KOUANMAOYIHUOWUZHONGLEI、MAOYICHENGBEN、TONGHUOLIULIANGDENGZHUDUOFANGMIANXIANGCHASHENYUAN, DANJINXIENIANLAI, CONGQIZISHENFAZHANLAIJIANG, KOUANDEMEILIYIZHUBUXIANXIAN。RUZHONGYUEBIANJINGDETIANBAOZHEN、TIANPENGZHEN、JINSHUIHEZHENDENG, ZHEIXIEXIAOCHENGZHENWEIRAOKOUAN, ZAIYIDINGFANWEINEI,BUDUANWANSHANCHENGZHENJICHUSHESHIYIJIGONGGONGFUWUTIXI, TIGAOFUWUZHILIANG, YOUHUAKOUANMAOYIHUANJING, CONGERSHIBIANJINGMAOYIBAOCHIWENDINGZENGZHANG, CHENGWEICHENGZHENJIANSHEDEZHUYAOCHANYE。CIWAI, WOMENHAIYINGZHUYIDAO, KOUANXIAOZHENYIGETUCHUTEDIANSHIDOUWEIKUAJINGSHAOSHUMINZUJUJUQU, YINER, KOUANDEKAIFANGHEBIANMAODEFAZHANBUJINWEIKUAJINGMINZUTIGONGLEYIGERICHANGWANGLAI、HUBUYUQUEDEPINGTAI, GENGJIASHENLEKUAJINGMINZUDEJIAOLIUYUHUDONG, ZENGJINLEXIANGHUZHIJIANDERENTONG, YOUZHUYUGOUJIANBIANJINGDIQUDESHEHUIZHIXU, SHIXIANBIANJIANGSHEHUIDEHEXIEYUWENDING。

ANLI3BIANJINGXIAOZHEN——JINSHUIHE

顶呱刮彩票网JINSHUIHEZHENWEIYUYUNNANSHENGHONGHEZHOUJINPINGMIAOZUYAOZUDAIZUZIZHIXIANDENANDUAN, DIXINGFUZA, SHANQUMIANJIZHAN99%, JIAOTONGTIAOJIANLUOHOU。JINSHUIHEKOUAN1993NIANBEIGUOWUYUANPIZHUNWEIGUOJIAYILEIKOUAN, DANYOUYUJICHUBORUO, BIANMAOYIZHIFAZHANHUANMAN,WEIQIDAODAIDONGZUOYONG。2000NIANHOU, JINPINGXIANDUOFANGCHOUJIZIJIN, XINGJIANDAOLU、CANGKU、SHICHANGDENGKOUANJICHUSHESHI, SHIKOUANTONGGUAN、MAOYIHUANJINGDEDAOYOUHUA, TONGSHIWANSHANXUEXIAO、YIYUAN、YOUJUTONGXUNDENGGONGGONGJICHUSHESHI。JINJINIANLAI, ZHEIGEKOUANXIAOZHENZHUJIANRENAOQILAI, BIANJINGMAOYIRIQUFANRONG, CHUKOUSHANGPINZHUYAOYOUBIANYAQI、ZIXINGCHE、SHENGSHIGAO。HUSHISHANGPINBAOKUOHAICHANPIN、SHUIGUO、JIANGUO、BAJIAO、BUPI、DIBANZHUAN、DIANTONGDENG, RIJIAOYILIANGZUIGAOCHAOGUO500WANYUAN, YUELAIYUEDUODEBIANMINCANYUQIZHONG, JINSHUIHEZHENWEICIZUJIANLEHUOWUBANYUNDUI、XIGONGJIAOBAOZHUANGDUI、MOTUOCHEYUNSHUDUI。CIWAI, JINPINGXIANYANBIANJUZHUMIAO、YAO、DAI、HANI、YI、ZHUANG、LAHU、BULANG (MANGREN) DENG8GEKUAJINGSHAOSHUMINZU, JINSHUIHEKOUANSUOZAIDIYESHIZHONGYUEBIANMINDEHUSHIJIE, CHUMEIRIDEBIANMINHUSHI, ZHONGYUEBIANMINMEI6TIANGANYICIJIE, GANJIEDEKUAJINGMINZUYIYAOZU、MIAOZU、DAIZU、HANIZUWEIZHU, YUENANKUAJINGMINZULAIZHONGGUOJINGNEIZHUYAOSHIWEIGOUMAIRICHANGSHENGHUOYONGPIN、XIAOSHOUSHUIGUO、SHUCAI、YAOCAIDENGHUOWU, SHUANGFANGBIANMINZAIKOUANJINGJIDEFAZHANZHONG, WANGLAIHEZUOGENGJIAPINFAN。 (DIAOCHASHIJIAN:2017NIAN2YUE3RI-2YUE4RI)

四、中越边境口岸型城镇化面临问题与解决对策

(YI) KOUANXINGCHENGZHENHUAFAZHANMIANLINDEWENTI

顶呱刮彩票网CONGQUANGUOCHENGZHENHUAFAZHANLAIKAN, BIANJIANGDIQUDECHENGZHENHUASHUIPINGPUBIANDIYUQUANGUOCHENGZHENHUAPINGJUNSHUIPING,SHANGCHUYUQIBUJIEDUAN, KEWEIRENZHONGERDAOYUAN。ZHONGYUEBIANJINGKOUANXINGCHENGZHENDEFAZHANSHUIPINGSUIYIWEIJUQUANGUOYANBIANDIQUQIANLIE, DANRENGMIANLINZHEYIXILIETUCHUWENTI, ZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAI:

1.JIAOTONGJICHUSHESHILUOHOU

JIAOTONGSHIZHONGYUEBIANJINGKOUANXINGCHENGZHENFAZHANDEZHUYAOPINGJINGZHIYI, ZHUYAOMIANLINYIXIAJIGEWENTI, SHOUXIAN, LIANJIEBIANJINGCHENGZHENDEYANBIANGONGLUBUGOUTONGCHANG, YOUQISHIDICHUSHANQU, DIXINGFUZADEYUNNANDUAN, JIAOTONGSHIFENLUOHOU, ZUAILEKOUANGONGNENGDEFAHUI;QICI, YANBIANDIQUGELEIJIAOTONGLIANJIEBUCHANG, KOUANDIQUQUESHAOYUGUONEIWAIZHONGXINCHENGSHIDELIANJIE。DUINEIERYAN, KOUANDIQUYUXIANCHENGYIJIGEJIZHONGXINCHENGSHIDEGONGLULIANJIEJIAORUO, DUIWAIERYAN, CHUDONGXING、PINGXIANGKOUAN, QITAYILEIHEERLEIKOUANQUESHAOYUYUENANXIANGHULIANJIEDEGAOSUGONGLU、TIELU, RUAIDIANKOUANJIUQUESHAOTONGWANGYUENANLIANGSHANYUHENEIDEGAOSUGONGLU、TIELU, WUFAMANZUKOUANDEFAZHANXUQIU。CIWAI, BIANMINHUSHIDIANJIAOTONGLUOHOU, WEIXIUTONGSANJIBOYOULU, JIBIANSHIBIANMAOFAZHANZOUZAIQIANLIEDECHONGZUOSHIYEYOU50%DEHUSHIDIANMEIYOUTONGYUENANGONGLUJIETONG, YOU10GEBIANMINHUSHIDIANDEJIAOTONGGONGLUSHI“DUANTOULU”。

2.KOUANTONGGUANNENGLIJIAORUO

DANGQIAN, ZHONGYUEBIANJINGDIQUDEBIANMINHUSHIDIANDOUMIANLINZHEQUESHAOPEITAOJICHUSHESHIDEWENTI, XUYAOJIANSHEDALIANGDECANGKU、HUOCHANG、JIANYANJIANYI、JIANGUANDENGSHESHI;DADUOSHUERLEIKOUANGUIHUABUHELI, JICHUSHESHIJIANSHEBUWANSHAN, WEISHELIGUOMEN, BANGONGSHESHILUOHOU;CIWAI, ZHONGYUEBIANJINGDEDIANZIKOUANWEINENGFAHUIQIZUIDAZUOYONG, RUSHIXIANCHELIANG“YIZHANSHI”YANFANGXITONGYIJITONGGUANWUZHIHUA、PUJILVKEZIZHUSHITONGGUANXITONGYIJIJIANLIRENHUOFENLIUTONGDAODENG。KOUANDIQUJICHUSHUJUXINXIWEIGONGKAI, LIANJIANXINXIGONGXIANG、YUANCHANDIJIANYANXINXIGONGXIANGDENGXINXIRUANJIANJIANSHEZHIHOU, GEBUMENZHIJIANWUFAGONGXIANGZHENGWUXINXI, GOUTONGBUCHANG, CONGERCHANSHENGGEZIWEIZHENGDEWENTI,ZHISHIKOUANPUBIANMIANLINXINXIHUACHENGDUBUGAO, TONGGUANNENGLIJIAODIDEWENTI。

3.WEIXINGCHENGZHONGYUEHEZUOJIAOLIUTIZHIJIZHI

ZHONGYUEBIANJINGDIQUGELEIFAZHANZHUTIQUESHAOGOUTONGYUJIAOLIU, GENGMEIYOUXINGCHENGWENDINGDEHEZUOJIAOLIUJIZHI,YOUCICHANSHENGLEXUDUOMAOYIBILEI, RUYIXIEZHONGYUEKOUANDEMAOYIHUOWUZHONGLEIQINGDANBINGBUDUICHENG, SHIBUFENHUOWUBINGBUNENGZAILIANGGEKOUANJIANTONGXING, JICONGSHIBIANMAODESHANGHUDAILAISUNSHI。HENDUOKUAJINGQUYUHEZUOXIANGMUDIFANGZHENGFUYINCAILI、NENGLIYOUXIAN, WUFACHENGDAN, XUYAOZIZHIQUHEGUOJIACENGMIANDETUIDONG。

4.ZHENGCEQINGXIELIDUBUGOU

顶呱刮彩票网YISHITUDIZHENGCE。BIANJINGDIQUDEFAZHANBUTONGYUZHONGXINCHENGSHI, QIBUWAN、KAIFASUDUJIAOMAN。YINER, DANGQIANDEKOUANXINGCHENGZHENHUAJIANSHEZHONGKOUAN、SHANGMAOJIANSHEPUBIANMIANLINGELEIXIANGMUJIANSHEYONGDIZHIBIAOQUEFADEWENTI, XUYAOXIANGGUANYOUHUIZHENGCEDEFUCHI。ERSHIZIJINZHENGCE。YANBIANDIQUSHOUDILIHUANJING、LISHISHIJIANDENGYINSUYINGXIANG, JINGJIJICHUBORUO, SHEHUIJINGJIFAZHANHUANMAN, DIFANGCAIZHENGNENGLIYOUXIAN, YINCIZAIFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONG, ZIJINQUEKOUDA、RONGZINANWENTISHIFENTUCHU, XUYAOGENGJIAYOUHUIDEZIJINZHENGCEFUCHI。SANSHIQUESHAOXIYINRENKOU、RENCAIDEZHENGCE。RENKOUSHIYANBIANFANRONGXINGSHENGDEHEXINYINSUZHIYI, RANERYANBIANGEXIANSHI (QU) RENKOUGUIMOJIAOXIAO, YOUQISHIKOUANZHOUWEIDEXIANGZHEN, RENKOUJUJIGUIMOXIAO, RENKOULIUSHIXIANXIANGYANZHONG。YINZHENGCEBIANDONG, WAILAIJINGSHANG、WUGONGRENKOUYESUIBIANMAOFAZHANXINGSHIBIANHUA, BINGBUWENDING。BIANJINGDIQUDEFAZHANXUYAODALIANGYINJINJINGJI、GUANLI、FALVDENGDUOFANGMIANDERENCAI, ERMUQIANYOUYUQUEFAYINJINRENCAI, YOUQISHIGAOCENGCIRENCAIYINJINDEWANSHANJIZHI, YINJINRENCAIYINGXIANGYOUDESHENGHUOTIAOJIAN、GONGZIDAIYU、SHEHUIFULIDENGZHENGCEBUMINGQUE, DAOZHIBIANJINGDIQUBINGWEICHENGWEIGELEIRENCAIDEJUJIDI, ZUAILECHENGZHENHUADEFAZHAN。SISHIBIANMINYOUHUIZHENGCE。DANGQIAN, BIANMINXIANGSHOUMEIRIBAOSHUIEDU8000YUANDEYOUHUIZHENGCEYISHISHI10YUNIAN, RUJINSUIZHEWUJIA、YUNSHUCHENGBENDEZENGJIA,BIANMINXIANGSHOUDESHIJILIYIZAIJIANSHAO, YINGXIANGBIANMINCANYUHUSHIDEREQING。

顶呱刮彩票网(ER) CUJINZHONGYUEBIANJINGKOUANXINGCHENGZHENHUAFAZHANDEDUICE

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ZHUSHI

①王尔敏.先民的智慧[M].桂林:广西师范大学出版社, 2008:226.

②赵永革, 王亚男.百年城市变迁[M].北京:中国经济出版社,2000:11.

③罗淳, 梁双陆.边贸经济与口岸型城镇:西南边疆民族地区小城镇建设的一个依托[J].经济问题探索, 2008, (10) ;武友德, 王源昌.边疆少数民族地区特色城镇化发展道路研究---以云南为例的分析[J].云南师范大学学报 (哲学社会科学版) , 2010, (2) .

④王新哲, 文岚, 等.广西边境地区经济开发开放与城镇化互动探析[J].广西民族大学学报 (哲学社会科学版) , 2015, (4) .

⑤张丽君, 董益铭, 等.民族地区新型口岸型城镇发展动力机制研究---以内蒙古自治区二连浩特市为例[J].民族研究, 2014, (1) .

⑥赵大山, 曹荣林.云南边境口岸地区新型城镇化发展路径探析[J].山东师范大学学报 (自然科学版), 2014, (2) .

⑦张丽君, 董益铭.口岸型城镇发展动力研究---以云南省为例[J].甘肃社会科学,2013, (5) .

⑧邬冰, 王亚丰, 等.中国沿边口岸与城市腹地互动机理研究[J].城市发展研究, 2012, (9) ;金德谷.满洲里边疆民族地区的口岸城市经济发展思考[J].贵州民族研究, 2016, (1) .

 

【ZUOZHEJIANJIE】QINHONGZENG, NAN, SHANXIHEYANGREN, GUANGXIMINZUDAXUEJIAOSHOU, BOSHISHENGDAOSHI, YANJIUFANGXIANGWEIWENHUARENLEIXUE、DOUSHIRENLEIXUE。

【YUANWENLAIYUAN】《YUNNANSHIFANDAXUEXUEBAO (ZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEBAN)》2017NIANDI3QI。