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【西南研究】周园|近现代多重语境下的怒族非物质文化遗产——以怒族民歌“哦得得”及民族舞“达比亚”为例

发文单位:   发文时间:2018-02-09

近现代多重语境下的怒族非物质文化遗产

——以怒族民歌“哦得得”及民族舞“达比亚”为例

周园

摘要:民歌与民族舞蹈在一定程度上可以说是一个民族的立法与结构, 它规范了这个民族的生存状态。伴随着云南建设民族文化大省和各地对非物质文化遗产的重视及各种形式“保护”措施的实施, 云南怒族非物质文化遗产“哦得得”和“达比亚”从原生环境到非物质文化遗产视野下呈现出多元化态势, 表演者不断地进行着文化“再生产”, 让原始艺术与现代社会意识形态不断杂糅, 使得新的艺术形式再生之后进入了“后民族艺术”时代。在现代以市场为主导的非物质文化遗产环境中, 以怒族为例的各民族艺术存在于近现代多重语境中, 当前这种环境导致了对民族艺术形态进行了“再生产”, 重构了当下民族艺术的生存状态——艺术变迁。

关键词: 多重语境 后民族艺术 文化再生产

 

MEIYIGEMINZUTEYOUDEMINZUWENHUADOUSHIZIWORENTONGJITAZHERENTONGDEXIANGZHENGFUHAO, ERZHEIXIEFUHAOYOUGENZHIYUTAMENSUOSHENGCUNDEHUANJING。MINZUYISHUBENYINGGAISHIZAIYUANSHENGHUANJINGZHONGYOUTEDINGDERENQUNWEIMANZUZIJISHENGCHANSHENGHUOFANGSHIERCHUANGZAODECHENGGUO, ERQIEQIFAZHANYANBIANDUOSHIZAIZIWOCHANGYUZHIZHONGFASHENG。DANSHIZAIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDESHIYEXIA, ZUOWEITEDINGWENHUAFUHAODEMINZUYISHUBEIZHANXIANZAILETAZHEDESHIYEZHONGBINGSHOUDUOFANGLILIANGDEGUANZHU, TEBIESHIZAIDANGXIAGEZHONGBAOHU、CHUANCHENG、FAZHANFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDEKOUHAOSHENGZHONG, MINZUYISHUDEZHUTIJIBENZHISHUXINGFASHENGLEDUOFANGMIANDEGAIBIAN, JINERSHIDEYISHUBIAODAFANGSHISHENZHIYUANBENYISHUFASHENGDESIWEIFANGSHI、ZHUTIJIZHUTI“JIAZHI”GUANDIAN、CHUANCHENGFANGSHIDENGDOUBEIZHIYUYIGE“XIANDAI”QIEBUQUEDINGDECHANGYUZHIZHONGXINGCHENGBIANHUA, JIEGUODAOZHIMINZUYISHUDEBENZHISHUXINGZAIYU“XIANDAI”RENDESHENGHUOFANGSHIJIJINGSHENXUQIUZAROUWEIYITIDEGUOCHENGZHONGFAZHANBIANHUA, SHIZHIZOUXIANGYIGEWEIZHIDEJINGYU。

NUZUDEWENHUAYISHUYUQISUOJUZHUDETEDINGHUANJINGYOUZHEMIQIEDELIANXI。NUZUSHENGHUOQUYUHAIBAGAO、SHANSHIXIANJUN、SHENGHUOJIANKU。ZAIZHANGQIYUGAIQUYUQITAMINZURUZANGZU、LISUZU、DULONGZUDENGDEHUQIAN、GONGSHENGGEJUZHONGMIQIEJIAOWANGYULIANXI, CONGERSHIDEBICIJIANDEWENHUAXIANGHUJIAORONGYINGXIANG, ZAOJIULENUZUDEMINZUWENHUAZAIJINXIANDAIDUOMINZUYUJINGZHONGJIJUYOUDUTEXING, YOUJIANRONGZHEQITAMINZUDEWENHUAYUANSU。NUZUDEFUSHI、SHENGHUOXISU、GEWUDENGWENHUA“YINZI”CHULESHIZIWOSHENFENRENTONGDEFUHAO, YESHIZIWOWENHUADEWAIXIANFANGSHI, ERQIEZAIDANGXIACHENGWEINUZUSHENBAOYUCHUANCHENGFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDEZHONGYAOYIJU。DUTEDENUZUFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANZAIJINXIANDAIDUOYUANWENHUADEPENGZHUANGZHONGYIQIDUTEXING、DIYUXINGJIRENTONGXINGERWANQIANGDICUNZAIZHE。

顶呱刮彩票网2006NIAN, “DABIYA”HE“EDEDE”YIQIDUTEXINGBEILIERUYUNNANSHENGDIYIPIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANMINGLU, CONGCIGAIMINZUYISHUSHIXIANGJINRULE“HOUMINZUYISHU”SHIDAIBINGZHISHENYUFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANBAOHUDESHIYEZHONG, SHOUDAODUOFANGLILIANGDEYINGXIANG。MUQIAN, “DABIYA”JI“EDEDE”DEYISHUXINGTAI、YISHUFASHENGYUQIBEINARUFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANMINGLUZHIQIANSUOCHUYUANSHENGHUANJINGZHONGDEZHUANGTAIXIANGBIYOULEHENDADEBIANHUA, “DABIYA”HE“EDEDE”DEJIESHOUZHE、CHUANCHENGZHE、BAOHUZHEYEBUZAISHIYIQIANYUANSHENGTAIHUANJINGZHIZHONGDEJIESHOUZHE、CHUANCHENGZHEHEBAOHUZHE。ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA, DUOFANGLILIANGCANYUQIZHONG, SHIDEZHEIYITEDINGMINZUDECHUANTONGWENHUAYICHANSHIQULEYIQIANFASHENG、FAZHAN、YANBIANDEGUILV, WUKEHUIBIDIZAITAZHEWENHUALILIANGDEYINGXIANGXIAZOUSHANGLETESHUDEFASHENG、FAZHAN、YANBIANZHILU。

一、传统语境下的怒族民歌“哦得得”及舞蹈“达比亚”

“EDEDE”JI“DABIYA”SHINUZUZHUYAODEYISHUYANGSHIJIYULEXIANGMU, TONGSHIYESHINUZURENMINDUISHENGHUO、SHENGCHAN、SHENGCUNHUANJINGDEYISHUBIAODA。ZHEIXIEGEWUXINGSHIDANYI, TONGSUYIXUE, RONGYICHUANCHANGBINGCHUANXI, SHENSHOUDANGDIMINZHONGXIAI。“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”ZHUYAOLIUXINGYUNUJIANGLISUZUZIZHIZHOUFUGONGXIANDE“NUSU”ZHIXIZHONG, ZUOWEILIANGXIANGDULIDEWENHUASHIXIANG, “EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”YIQIDUTEDEWAIZAIBIAOXIANXINGSHIHEWENHUANEIHANERYOUBIEYUQITABUTONGLEIXINGDEYISHUBIAOXIANXINGSHI。ZAISHIJIDEYULEHUODONGJIZHANYANZHONG, “DABIYA”HE“EDEDE”ZHIJIANYOUYOUZHEZHONGYAODELIANXI。MEIDANG“NUSU”QUNZHONGYINCHANGQI“EDEDE”SHI, BIHUIZHAOLAILEQIYU“DABIYA” (WU) XIANGBANZOU, ERDANGRENMENTIAOQI“DABIYA”SHI, KOUZHONGYOUHUIZIRANDIHENGCHANGQI“EDEDE”。JIBIANSHIZAIYULEXIANGMUJIXIUXIANFANGSHIDUOYANGDEJINTIAN, NUZURENMINSHIZHONGXIHUAN、YUANYITIAO“DABIYA”、DUICHANG“EDEDE”。ZAIZHEIXIENUZUTONGBAODESHIYEZHONG, ZHEISHIXIANDAISHEJIAOFANGSHIWUFABINIDEYIZHONGRENJIJIAOWANGFANGSHI。YIN“DABIYA”HE“EDEDE”ZAINUZUSHEHUIJIEGOUZHONGDEGONGNENGRENGRANZAIFAHUIZHESHISHIZAIZAIDEZUOYONG, YINCIGAIWENHUASHIXIANGDEYILIUCHUANZHIJIN, QIEZAIXINALEWAILAIWENHUAYAOSUHOURENGRANCHENGXIANCHUYIDINGDESHENGMINGLI。

“EDEDE”SHINUZUMINGEDEDAIMA, YESHIYINUYU“EDEDE”WEIKAITOUDENUZUMINGEDETONGCHENG。“EDEDE”DEYANCHANGNEIRONGJIBENDOUSHIJIXINGFAHUI, HANGAILENUZUSHENGHUODEFANGFANGMIANMIAN:YOUSHENGHUOSUOSHI、LAOZUOXINGSHI, YEYOUNANNVZHIJIANHUTONGQINGYIDEMIANMIANQINGHUA。CHANGCISHIGENJUTEDINGHUANJINGHEFENWEILINCHANGCHUANGZUODE, YOUSHAOXUSHIZUBEILIUCHUANXIALAIDEGUDINGFANGSHI, RUJINGJIUSHICHANGDE“EDEDE”。YANCHANG“EDEDE”SHI, YAOQIUYANCHANGZHEZAIMEICHANGYISHOUGEZHIQIANDOUYINUYU“EDEDE”WEIKAITOU, YINCHUGEZHEYAOBIAODADENEIRONG。ZAIYANCHANGRENSHUSHANGMIANMEIYOUTEBIEDEYAOQIU, KEYISHIDUCHANG, YEKEYISHILIANGGERENYANCHANG, HAIKEYISHIDUORENZUHEHECHANG, GENJUXIANCHANGDEHUANJINGYIJUEDINGSHIYOUJIGERENYANCHANG。XUANLVHECHANGCIDEDUOYANGXINGYAOQIUMEIYIGEYANCHANGZHEDUISHENGHUODOUYAOYOUSHENKEDETIHUIYUGANWU。ZAINUZUYUYANZHONG, “EDEDE”YOU“MANMANCHANG”DEYISI, YOUZHEDUTEDEYINLEJIEGOUHEXIANZHUDEMINZUSHIBIETEZHENG。SUIZHENUZUSHENGCUNKONGJIANDEBIANHUAJIQISHEHUIZHENGZHI、JINGJI、WENHUADEBIANQIAN, YUELAIYUEDUODEYULEFANGSHIJIYINLEXINGTAISHENTOURUBINGCHONGCHIZHENUZUSHEHUISHENGCHAN、SHENGHUODEGEGEFANGMIAN, CONGERZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGSHIDE“EDEDE”YUANBENSUOJUYOUDEYIXIECHUANTONGGONGNENGYEZAIZHUJIANFASHENGZHEGAIBIAN。

“DABIYA”SHINUZURENMINFEICHANGXIAIDEYIZHONGWUDAOXINGSHI, SHINUZURENMINZIYUZILEDEJITIXINGWUDAO。BIAOYANSHI, TONGCHANGSHIYOUNANYANZOUZHEDANZOUYONGNUJIANGDANGDIDESHUMUZHICHENGDEPIPA、SIXIANDENGLEQI, NVZIZEDANZOUKOUXIAN, NANNVWEICHENGQUANJINXINGWUDAO。“DABIYA”XINGTAIDUOYANG, JUBUWANQUANTONGJI, QIBIAOYANXINGSHIYOU100DUOGETAOLU, BIAOXIANDENEIRONGHETICAIYESHIDUOFANGMIANDE, YOUFANYINGRENMENDESHEHUISHENGCHAN、RICHANGSHENGHUOYIJIZIRANHUANJINGZHUANGKUANGDE, YEYOUFANYINGNANNVQINGAIDE。RUFANYINGSHEHUISHENGCHANHERICHANGSHENGHUODE《JIANHUANGDOUWU》《MUJIXIADANWU》《FANGYANGWU》, FANYINGNANNVQINGAIDE《SHUANGREN“DABIYA”》《TIQUNWU》DENG。ZHEIXIEWUDAODOUSHINUZURENMINZHANGQISHEHUISHENGCHANHERICHANGSHENGHUOSHIJIANZHONGCHUANGZAOXINGCHENGDE, SHINUZURENMINRENSHENGGUANNEIXINGANSHOUDEWAIZAIBIAOXIAN, JUYOUDUTEDEWENHUAXINGHEMINZUXING。

二、作为非物质文化遗产的怒族民歌“哦得得”和舞蹈“达比亚”

顶呱刮彩票网FEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDETESHUXINGYUANZIYUQIDUIYUANSHENGTAISHEHUIWENHUAHEZIRANYUSHEHUIHUANJINGDEYILAIERXINGCHENG, ZHEIZHONGTESHUXINGYEJUTIBIAOXIANZAIQIZISHENSUOJUYOUDEFENGBIXING、JUXIANXING、DUTEXINGDENGTEZHENGFANGMIAN, ZAIYUYIWENHUADEJIAOLIU、PENGZHUANGZHONGCHENGXIANCHUJIAONANSHIYINGWAILAISHIWUDETEDIAN, YINCI, ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGYEBIAOXIANCHUQICUIRUOXINGDEYIMIAN。ZUOWEIWOGUORENKOUJIAOSHAOMINZU, NUZUZHANGQISHENGHUOZAISHANGAOGUSHEN、JIAOTONGBUBIANDENUJIANGDAXIAGUZHONG。DANSHISUIZHEJINGJISHEHUIDEFAZHAN, QISUOSHENGCUNDEXIANGDUIFENGBIDESHEHUIHUANJINGBUDUANBEIDAPO, QITAQUYUHEMINZUDEWENHUABUDUANYONGRUNUJIANGXIAGUDIQU。YOUYUBUTONGWENHUACHIXUJIAOLIU, NUZUDECHUANTONGWENHUAYEZAIBUDUANDIFASHENGZHEBIANHUA。TEBIESHIJINXIENIANLAIDALIANGNUZUQINGNIANWAICHUWUGONG, YEDAOZHILECHUANTONGWENHUAZAICHUANCHENGGUOCHENGZHONGCHUANCHENGZHUTIZHUJIANLIUSHI。ZUOWEINUZUZUIJUTESEDEWAIZAIWENHUASHIXIANG, “EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”DESHENGCUNKONGJIANJISHENGCUNHUANJINGYEBUDUANDISHOUDAOWAILAIWENHUADEWEIXIEHEJIYA。ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA, JIAQIANGDUIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHAN“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”DEDIAOCHAYANJIUJIBAOHULIDUCHENGWEIYIXIANGJINPODERENWU。

(YI) “EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”DEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANTEZHENG

顶呱刮彩票网SUIZHESHIDAIDEBIANQIAN, ZAIBUTONGLILIANGDEXIANGHUZUOYONGXIA, NUZUMINJIANYISHU“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”CHENGWEILEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHAN。FEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANSHIXIANDAI“WENMING”SHEHUIFUYUTEDINGWENHUACHUANTONGDETESHUCHENGWEI, YESHIYIZHONGTESHUDEWENHUAXINGTAIFUHAOTEDINGDEWENHUACHUANTONGYINQITESHUXINGERBEIMINGMINGWEIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHAN, TONGSHIYEYINWEIHUODELEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDEWENHUAFUHAOERGENGJIATUXIANLEQIDUTEXING。YIBANSHUOLAI, ZUOWEIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDE“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”CHENGXIANCHUYIXIAJIYOUGONGXINGYOUJIFUGEXINGDETEZHENG。

1、CHUANCHENGXING

WENHUADECHUANCHENGXINGTONGCHANGQUJUEYUBEITEDINGRENQUNCHUANGZAOCHULAIDEWENHUASHIXIANGSHIFOUNENGGOUCHIXUYOUXIAODIMANZUCHUANGZAOZHESHENGCHAN、SHENGHUODENGXIANGGUANXUQIU。CHANSHENGYUTEDINGDELISHISHIQIHELISHITIAOJIANXIADEMINZUMINJIANYISHUYOUZHEQITEDINGDEWENHUAYIXIANG, SHIRENHEYIGETEDINGMINZUZAIQITESHUDELISHIFAZHANZHONGDUIZIWOSHENGCUNSHIJIANJISHENGCUNKONGJIANZHUANGKUANGDEZAIXIANJIANGOUZAITI, SHIMINZUZHIJIANZHANGQIJIDIANHECHUANCHENGXIALAIJUYOUZENGQIANGZIWORENTONGYISHI、QUBIEYUTAZHEDEWENHUAFUHAO。NUZUJIAOWEIDUTEDESHENGCUNKONGJIANHESHENGCUNFANGSHIWEI“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”DEFASHENG、FAZHAN、YANBIANTIGONGLEDUTEDESHENGTAIHUANJING。ZAICIXIANGDUIWENDINGDESHENGCUNKONGJIANZHONG, YOUYU“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”CHONGFENMANZULENUZURENMINQINGGANBIAODAYIJIJIANGOUSHEHUISHENGCHAN、SHENGHUODEGEZHONGSUQIU, YINCIBEIGUANGDANUZURENMINJIESHOU, TAMENSHENSHENDICANYUDAOQIZHONG, SHIZHIYIDAIDAIDIXIANGCHUANXIALAI。ZHIYAONUZUJIXUSHENGCUNYUZHEIYITEDINGDESHENGCUNKONGJIANZHONG, ZHIYAOTAMENSHENGCUNHEFAZHANDEZIRAN、SHEHUIHUANJINGBUFASHENGJULIEBIANHUA, NEIME, “EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”ZHEIZHONGZHUYAOYIKAOKOUERXIANGCHUAN、TONGGUOSHIJIANDECAOZUOYUSHIFANCHUANSHOUJIXIAYIDAIDEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANJIUJIANGZHANGQIBAOCHIZHEJIBENDECHUANTONGXINGTAIERDEDAOCHUANCHENG。SHIZHIJINRI, “EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”RENGRANGUANGSHOUNUZURENMINXIAI, CHONGFENSHUOMINGLEQISUOJUYOUDECHUANCHENGXINGZHEIYITUCHUTEDIAN。

2. DIYUXING

顶呱刮彩票网“YIFANGSHUITUYANGYUYIFANGREN, YIFANGRENCHANSHENGYIFANGWENHUA”。BUTONGDESHENGCUNHUANJINGWEIMEIYIGEMINZUCHUANGZAOHECHUANCHENGBUTONGWENHUADIANDINGLEJIANSHIJICHU, ZIRANHUANJINGHESHEHUIHUANJINGDEDUOYANGXINGWEIDUOYANGXINGDEWENHUACUNXUTIGONGLEBIYAODEQIANTITIAOJIAN。KONGJIANTEZHENGDECHAYIXINGSHIDEBUTONGKONGJIANNEIDEBUTONGRENLEIQUNTICHENGXIANCHUDIYUXINGDEYIZHIXINGTEDIAN, ZHEIZHONGKEGUANZIRANDECHAYIXINGCHENGJIULEZHUKEGUANGONGTONGZUOYONGXIAXINGCHENGDEWENHUADIYUXINGTEZHENG。JIUFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANLAISHUO,MEIYIGEDIYUDEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDOUSHIQIDIFANGSHENGCUN“JINGYAN”DEZAIXIAN, YOUZHEQIBUTONGYUQITADIYUDEDUTEXING。ERQIE, JISHIZAITONGYIHUANJINGXIA, BUTONGDERENQUNYINWEIJUTIDEXINLIGUANNIANJISIWEICHAYIYEHUIDAOZHIQIXINGCHENGBUTONGMINZU、CHUANGZAOHECHUANCHENGCHUBUTONGDEWENHUA,XINGCHENGBUTONGDEWENHUAXINGTAI。TONGYANGSHISHENGCUNHUODONGYUNUJIANGXIAGUDIQU, “EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”JIUCHENGWEILENUZUDUJUTESEDEMINZUMINJIANYISHUXINGSHI, YUTONGYANGSHENGCUNHUODONGYUZHEIYIKONGJIANDELISUZU、YIZU、“LEMOREN” (BAIZUZHIXI) DENGMINZUCHUANGZAOHECHUANCHENGDEMINJIANYISHUJIUBUYIYANG。YU“EDEDE”XIANGBANXIANGSHENGDE“DABIYA”BUNENGLIKAIMINGE“EDEDE”ERCUNZAI, ERWEI“DABIYA” (WU) BANZOUSUOYONGDELEQI“DABIYA”YEZHINENGYOUSHENGZHANGYUNUJIANGXIAGUZHONGDEQISHUSUOZHIZUO。DUTEDERENWENJIZIRANHUANJINGXIANDINGLE“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”DEFENBUQUYU, LIKAILETEDINGDEDIYU, “EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”YEJIUHUISHIQULEQILAIYICUNZAIDEHUANJING。MINZUYOUZHEZIJIDESHENGCUNXIGUAN, GENJUMEIYIGEMINZUDESHENGCUNHUANJINGYEKEYIQUFENBUTONGDEMINZU, SUOYI“DIYU”TEZHENGCHENGWEILEQUFENMINZUDEZHONGYAOBIAOZHI, YESHIWENHUACHAYIDEZHONGYAOTIXIAN。YINCI, “EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”BEIDASHANGLEDIYUDELUOYIN。

3. RENTONGXING

WENHUASHIMINZUZIWORENTONGDEZHONGYAOBIAOZHI, SHIMINZUQINGGANDEFUZHETI, SHIBUTONGMINZUNEIXINDEQINGGANYIFU, WENHUARENTONGSHIMINZURENTONGDEZUIJIBENYAOQIU。FEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANSHIMINZUWENHUADETIXIAN, SHISHIDAIMINZUSHENGCUNYUSHENGHUODETIXIAN, CHENGZAIZHEMEIYIGEMINZUTEDINGDELISHI, SHIMINZULEJIEZIWOLISHIDEZHONGYAOYIJU。ZAIDUOYUANWENHUABINGCUNDEJINTIAN, MEIYIGEMINZUZUXIANYILIUXIALAIDEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANSHIQUBIE“WOZU”YU“TAZU”DEXIANMINGDEWENHUATEZHENGZHIYI。“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”SHINUZUWENHUADEJINGSUI, TIXIANZHEGAIMINZUDELISHIJIYI、BIAODAZHETAMENDUTEDEQINGSI、BANGZHUZHETAMENGOUTONGTIANDIRENSHEN, JISHINUZUWENHUADEZHONGYAOBIAOXIANXINGSHI, YOUSHINUZUSHENGCUNHUANJINGYUSHEHUISHENGCHAN、SHENGHUOFANGSHIDEZHONGYAOTIXIAN, JUYOUZHIXIANGHEGONGNENGDEYIYI。XINGCHENGYUTESHUSHENGTAIHUANJINGHESHEHUIJIEGOUZHONGDE“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”JUYOUMINGXIANDEDIYUTEZHENGHESHEHUITEZHENG, TONGSHIYESHIYURENWEN、ZIRANHUANJINGHUDONGDECHANWU, ERQIEZAININGJUNUZURENMINDESIYUXING、QIANGHUAQIQUNTINEIBUDELIANDAIFANGMIANFAHUIZHEZHIGUANZHONGYAODEZUOYONG。

顶呱刮彩票网(ER) FEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANZHENGCEXIADE“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”

顶呱刮彩票网ZIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANGAINIANBEITICHUYILAI, ZHENDUIZHEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANBAOHUDEZHONGZHONGCUOSHIYESUIZHIBEISHEJICHULAI。WEILEBAOHUZHEIXIEZHENGUIDERENLEIWENHUAYICHAN, GEZHONGMINJIANZUZHIHELILIANGQINGZHULEJIDADEREQING, YIZHENGFUWEIZHUDAODEGEZHONGZHENGCEYEBUDUANYINGYUNERSHENG。NUZUFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHAN“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”ZHENGSHIZAIZHEIYANGYIZHONGYUJINGXIACHENGWEILEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHAN, ZHENGFUHEMINJIANZUZHIWEIQIBAOHUSHEJICHUZHUDUODEJUCUOHEZHENGCEGUIDING。JINGGUOSHIYUNIANDESHIJIAN, ZAIQUDEMINGXIANCHENGXIAODETONGSHI, QICHUANCHENGYUFAZHANYEMIANLINZHEDUOFANGMIANDEKUNNAN。

1、BAOHUZHONGDENUZUMINGE“EDEDE”HEWUDAO“DABIYA”

顶呱刮彩票网ZIWOGUOSHISHIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANBAOHUZHANLVEYILAI, “EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”HUODELEZHENGFUDEZHONGSHIBINGBEIZAIGEJIZHENGFUDEZHIDAOXIAYIBUTONGDE“FANGSHI”JINXINGBAOHU, RUPUCHADENGJI、RENDINGCHUANCHENGRENBINGJIYUWUZHIJIANGLIYIGULIQIFAHUIHAOCHUANCHENGHEBAOHUFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDEZUOYONG。DANSHIZAIDUIDAIZHEIYIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDEYINGYOUDETAIDUHEXINGWEISHANG, BUTONGBUMEN、BUTONGQUNTISHENZHIBUTONGDEDIFANGQUECHANSHENGLEBUJINXIANGTONGDETAIDU, BINGCAIQULEMUDEGEBUYIYANGDEXINGWEI。KEYISHUO, WEIRAOZHEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANXINGCHENGLEMOUQIUBUTONGQUANLIHUODEDELILIANG。JIU“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”ERYAN, ZICHENGWEIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANYIHOUJIUCHUYUGEZHONGLILIANGDEBAOHUHEYINGXIANGZHIXIA, RUBEIGEZHONGYANCHUDANWEIJITUANTINARUYANCHUTIXI。MUQIAN“DABIYA”HE“EDEDE”DEYANCHUFANGSHIZHUYAOYOULIANGZHONG:YIZHONGSHISHOUGUOXIANDAIZHUANYEXUNLIANDEYISHU“RENCAI”DUICHUANTONGDE“DABIYA”HE“EDEDE”JINXINGERCIYISHUJIAGONG, SHIQICHENGWEIFUYOUXIANDAI“DAZHONGSHENMEI”YIYIDEFUHAO“CHANPIN”JINXINGBIAOYAN, YIMANZUGENGDUOPUTONGMINZHONGDEYISHUSHENMEIXUQIU;LINGYIZHONGZESHIBANEIXIEYUANSHENGDEMINJIAN“YISHUJIA”ANPAIDAODANGQIANDEWENHUAYUJINGZHONG, TONGGUO“YUANSHENGTAI”DEYANCHULAIZHANXIANQIMINZUWENHUATESE, RANGXIANDAIDEPUTONGMINZHONGJIECHU、RENSHIHEJIESHOUZHEIXIEMINZUMINJIANYISHU。WULUNSHINAYIZHONGXINGSHIDEYANCHU, DOUBUTONGCHENGDUDIDUI“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”ZHEIYIMINJIANYISHUDECHUANCHENGHEFAZHANQIDAOBAOHUZUOYONG, YANCHUSHOUYIJIWENHUAYANSHENGXINGRANGZHEIXIEWENHUACHIYOUZHEKEWANGBAOHUBINGFAZHANZHEIZHONGXINGSHIDEMINJIANYISHU, KEGUANSHANGYEDADAOLEBAOHU、CHUANCHENGHEFAZHANFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDEMUDE。

顶呱刮彩票网RENLEIXUESHIYEXIADEWENHUAZHENGTIGUANYAOQIUKANDAIRENHESHIWUDOUYAOYILIANXIDEFANGFALAIGUANCHA, FENXIRENHEYIGEWENHUASHIXIANGBUNENGGULIDILAIJIESHI, ERSHIYINGGAIZHIQIYUYIGEWANZHENGDEWENHUATIXIZHONGLAIJIEDU, YEJIUSHISHUO, FENXIRENHEYIGETEDINGDEWENHUASHIXIANGBIXUBAGAIWENHUASHIXIANGFANGDAOQISUOCUNZAIDEZIRANHUANJING、SHEHUIHUANJINGZHONGCAINENGHUODEZUIWEIJIEJINZHENSHIDEJIELUN。YINCI, DUINUZUMINJIANYISHU“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”LAISHUO, CHUZHENGFUWAIDEQITAYIQIESHEHUILILIANGZIFACANYUDAOFUXING、CHUANCHENG、YANXUMINZUMINJIANYISHUDENULIZHONG, DUIQIJINXING“HUOTAI”BAOHU。“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”DEZHUTIDUIQIWENHUADECHUANCHENGYUFAZHANYOUZHEZIWOPANDUAN, ZAITAMENDERICHANGSHENGCHANLAODONGGUOCHENGZHONGDUI“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”JINXINGBAOHUSHIJIAN。SHEHUIKONGJIANZHONGDEGEZHONGLILIANGJIJIDUIWAIXUANCHUAN“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”BINGJIECIKUODANUZUWENHUADEYINGXIANGFANWEI, ZHEIYANGZUODEJIEGUOBUJINZENGQIANGLENUZUZIHAOGANHEZIXINXIN, ERQIEDUINUZUDEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANQIDAOLEYIDINGDEBAOHUZUOYONG。

顶呱刮彩票网2、KUNJINGZHONGDENUZUMINGE“EDEDE”HEWUDAO“DABIYA”

JIANG“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”MINGQUEWEITESHUDEWENHUAXINGTAI———FEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANLAIBAOHUDEZHONGZHONGNULI, GENGDUODESHIYIJU《FEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANFA》JI《YUNNANSHENGMINZUMINJIANCHUANTONGWENHUABAOHUTIAOLI》DENGXIANGGUANFALVFAGUILAIKAIZHAN。RANER, SHANGSHUFALVFAGUIZHENDUIDEDUIXIANGSHISUOYOUDEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHAN, QIZHONGBINGMEIYOUZHUANMENZHENDUI“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”DETESHUXINGERZHIDINGCHUZHENDUIXINGGENGQIANGDECHUANCHENGHEBAOHUCUOSHIJIFANGAN。ZAINUJIANGDIQU, DUIYUFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANBAOHUJIGOUDESHEZHIYEYOUSUOQIANQUE, ZAIDUINUZUFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANSHISHIBAOHUDEGUOCHENGZHONGSUISHEZHILEZHUANMENBUMENFUZEBAOHUGONGZUO, RANERBINGWEIPEIBEIYOUZUGOUDERENYUANKAIZHANGONGZUO, ERQIECONGSHIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANBAOHUGONGZUODEDABUFENRENYUANWEIJIESHOUGUOZHUANYEXUNLIAN, YINCIYEYINGXIANGDAOLE“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”DEBAOHUXIAOGUO。ZHENGFUZAIDIAODONGWENHUAZHUTIDUI“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”SHISHIBAOHUDEJIJIXING、ZHUDONGXING、TANSUOXINGHAIYOUDAIJIAQIANG。MUQIAN, DABUFEN“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”DEZHANYANHUODONGJUNSHIYOUZHENGFUCEHUAHEZUZHI,MINJIANZIFAZUZHIDEHUODONGJIAOWEISHAOJIAN。ZAIBAOHU“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”FEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDEGONGZUOZHONG, LUJINGDANYISHIDANGXIACUNZAIDEJIAOWEIYANZHONGDEWENTI, ZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAIBAOHUZIJINZHUYAOYOUZHENGFUBOKUANTOURU, DANSHIYOUYUMEIYOUDUITOURUBAOHUZIJINDESHUEZHIDINGCHUYANGE、XIZHIDEBIAOZHUN, NANMIANJIBEIBAOHUDUIXIANGDEZHUTIXINGCHENGHOUCIBOBIDEYINXIANG。TONGSHI, DUIYUZHENGFUDEJIJIJIERUHAIRONGYIJIBEIBAOHUDUIXIANGDEZHUTICHANSHENGZHENGFUDESUOZUOSUOWEIDOUSHILISUOYINGDANGDEZHEIYANGYIZHONGBUZHUNQUEPANDUAN, CONGERCHANSHENGJIAOQIANGDEYILAIXING, ZUOWEIZHUTITOURUDAOBAOHUGONGZUOZHONGDEZIJUEXING、ZHUDONGXINGFANERSHOUDAOXUERUO。YINCI, RUHEFAHUIDANGDIMINZUZAIBAOHUGONGZUOZHONGDEZIJUEXING、ZHUDONGXINGHEJIJIXING, SHIYOUXIAOBAOHUHECHUANCHENG“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”FEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANGONGZUOMIANDUIDEYIGEZHONGYAOWENTI。ZHIYOUSHIWENHUACHIYOUZHEZISHENYISHIDAOBENMINZUWENHUASUODAILAIDEZIHAOGANYUYOUYUEGAN, YOULE“WENHUAZIJUE”DEDONGLIBINGJIJIZHUDONGDITOURUDAOBAOHUHECHUANCHENGGONGZUOZHONG, CAINENGSHIGAIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDEDAOZHENZHENGDEBAOHUYUCHUANCHENG。CIWAI, YOUYUJIDUJIAODEJIAOYIJIAOGUIGUIDINGJIAOTUBUDECHUANCHANGCHUANTONGMINGEHETIAOCHUANTONGDEMINZUWUDAO, NUZUZHONGDEJIDUJIAOTUBINGBUHUICANYUDAO“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”DEBAOHUHECHUANCHENGZHONG, ZHEIZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGYASUOLENUZUFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANZHUTIDEFANWEI。ZENYANGHELIDICHULIHAONUZUZHONGBUTONGXINYANGZHEDUIDAINUZUCHUANTONGWENHUADETAIDUHEXINGWEI, YESHIBIXURENZHENKAOLVDEWENTI。

三、“后民族艺术”时代怒族民歌“哦得得”和舞蹈“达比亚”

MINZUMINJIANYISHUBENSHENDEHUOTAILIUDONGXINGSHIQIZISHENDEYICUNZAIBINGDEDAOBUDUANCHUANCHENGDEZHONGYAOYUANYIN。WENHUACONG“WOZHE”HUANJINGDAO“TAZHE”SHIYECHANGYUDEBIANHUA, BIRANHUIZAOCHENG“WOZHE”YISHUXINGWEICUNZAI、YANXUHEFAZHANDENGYIXILIEBIANHUADEFASHENG。SUIZHEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANCHUANCHENGYUBAOHUDEGUANNIANRIYISHENRURENXIN, XIANGGUANZHENGCEFAGUIDEZHIDINGHESHISHIFANGANYUELAIYUECHENGSHU, FEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDEZHUTIYIJIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDEBENZHISHUXINGYEFASHENGLEDUOFANGMIANDEGAIBIAN。ZAITEDINGDECHANGYUZHONG, YISHUBIAODAFANGSHISHENZHIYUANBENYISHUFASHENGDESIWEIFANGSHIJIZHUTI“JIAZHI”GUANDIANDEGAIBIANSHIDEMINZUYISHUDEFASHENGHUANJING、ZHUTI、CHUANCHENGFANGSHIDENGBEIZHIYUYIGE“XIANDAI”DEERYOUBUQUEDINGDECHANGYUZHIZHONG。ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA, MINZUYISHUBENZHISHUXINGFASHENGDEGAIBIANYU“XIANDAI”RENDESHENGHUOFANGSHIJIJINGSHENXUQIUZAROUWEIYITI,ZHEIYANGJIUWEICHUANTONGDECHUANCHENGDAILAILEZHUDUOBUQUEDINGXING。ZAIZHEIZHONGCHANGYUZHIXIADE“WENHUAZAISHENGCHAN”CHENGWEILEDANGXIAMINZUYISHUJIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANBAOHU、CHUANCHENGHEFAZHANDEXINTEDIAN:ZAITEDINGDEYUJINGXIATONGGUOGEZHONGXIANDAIDE“SHOUDUAN”LAIYANXUHEZAISHENGCHUANTONGWENHUA。ZHEIZHONGTEDINGDEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANYUJINGSHIDECHUANTONGDEMINZUYISHUJINRULE“HOUXIANDAI”SHIQI。

(YI) “WENHUAZAISHENGCHAN”GAINIANZHONGDENUZUMINGE“EDEDE”HEWUDAO“DABIYA”

“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”SHINUZUZHEIYIMINZUTEYOUDEWENHUA, SHIZUXIANYILIUXIALAIDEWENHUAYICHAN, YOUZHEQITESHUDECUNZAIJIAZHI。“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”SHINUZURENMINSHENGCHANSHENGHUOFANGSHIDEJIZHONGTIXIAN, YESHIQISHEHUIJIEGOUZHONG“TAZHE”DUIQIWENHUARENTONGDEBIAOZHI。“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”SHIYIBENHUOZHEDELISHISHU, HOURENCONGZHONGNENGGOURENSHIZUXIANDESHENGHUOFANGSHI、JIAZHIGUANHESHEHUIYISHIXINGTAIDENG, ZHEIXIE“YOUXING”HUO“WUXING”DESIWEIGUANNIANJIYISHIXINGTAIDOUHUICHENGWEINUZUJINHOUWENHUAFAZHANDEJICHU。

顶呱刮彩票网“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”SHIJUYOUHUOTAILIUBIANXINGDEWENHUAYICUN, SUIZHEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANGAINIANDETICHUHEBAOHUZHENGCEDEZHIDINGCHUTAI, “EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”YOULELIANGHAODECUNZAISHENGTAIBINGNENGGOUCANYUDAODANGDAIRENDESHENGHUOFANGSHIZHONG, ERQIEBIAOXIANCHUQIANGLIEDESHICHANGJINGJIJIAZHISHUXING。RUGUODUI“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”BENSHENSUOYUNHANZHEDE“WENHUADUTEXING”JIAYIKAIFAJIUNENGDAILAIXIANZHUDEJINGJIXIAOYI。YINCI, YUNNANSHENGJINUJIANGLISUZUZIZHIZHOUZHENGFUJINNIANLAIJIUBUDUANDUI“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”DEYISHUYANGSHIJIWENHUAXINGTAIJINXINGLEKAIFA, BAQIBANSHANGLEGEZHONG“WUTAI”YIHUOQULIANGHAODESHEHUIHEJINGJIXIAOYI。ZHEIYANGYIZHONGJUCUOBUJINKUODALEDUINUZUWENHUADEXUANCHUANHEYINGXIANG, ZENGQIANGLENUZUDEMINZUWENHUAZIXIN, RANGGENGDUODERENMENRENSHIHEJIESHOULENUZUYOUXIUCHUANTONGWENHUA, ERQIEXIANZHUDEJINGJIXIAOYIYECIJILEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANZHUTICANYUBAOHUHECHUANCHENGGONGZUODEREQING, WEIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDECHUANCHENGHEBAOHUCHUANGZAOCHUYOULIDEHUANJING。

可见, 对“哦得得”和“达比亚”进行文化“再生产”, 就是在做好抢救与保护的前提下, 对其中的经济价值加以合理开发和科学利用, 在市场化、商品化的时代背景下发挥其经济价值, 实现文化保护与经济发展的良性循环互动, 以保护带动发展, 以发展促进保护。

(ER) “WENHUAZAISHENGCHAN”GUOCHENGZHONGDENUZUMINGE“EDEDE”HEWUDAO“DABIYA”

顶呱刮彩票网“WENHUAZAISHENGCHAN”SHIZAI“BAOHU”WENHUAYUANZHENXINGTAIJIZUNZHONGWENHUAXIANGDUIXINGDEQIANTIXIAJINXINGDE, JIEZHUDANGXIADEGEZHONGJISHUSHOUDUANJINXINGERCICHUANGZUO, SHICHUANTONGWENHUAYUANSUYUXIANDAIRENMENDESHENMEIYUANSUJINXINGYOUJIJIEHE, WEIMINZUMINJIANYISHUYUDANGXIASHICHANGXUQIUDEWENHUACHANPINSHIXIANYOUJIDUIJIE, KUODAMINZUMINJIANYISHUDECUNZAIJICHU。TONGGUOXIANDAIRENDESIWEIJIGEZHONG“JISHU”LILIANGJIANGYUANSHIWENHUAZIYUANZHUANHUAWEIWENHUASHENGCHANLIHEWENHUACHANPIN, YIFUHEXIANDAIDAZHONGSHENMEIBINGCHANSHENGJINGJIXIAOYI, ZHEIJIANGYOUZHUYUCHUANTONGWENHUADEBAOHUYUCHUANCHENG。

顶呱刮彩票网DUIYU“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”DE“WENHUAZAISHENGCHAN”LAISHUO, SHOUXIANYINGGAIFUXINGQIYUANYOUDEGONGNENG, RANGQINENGGUANGFANDICUNHUOYUNUZUDANGXIADESHEHUISHENGCHANHESHENGHUOZHIZHONG;LINGWAIHAIYAOBUDUANXUNZHAOTUPOKOU, ZHUANHUAYUANYOUGONGNENG,XUNQIUXINCHULUBINGTISHENGQINEIZAIWENHUAJIAZHI。CHULERANG“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”ZAINUZUDESHEHUISHENGCHANHESHENGHUOZHONGBAOCHIYUANYOUDEZIYUZILEDEJIXIANGJIBENGONGNENGWAI, YINGGAICHUANGZAOJIHUI, BUDUANDIDUIYUANYOUDEYISHUYANGSHIJINXINGJIEGOUBINGERCIZHONGGOULAICHANSHENGXINDEYISHUXINGSHI, RANG“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”CHENGWEI“XIANDAIDE”YISHUCHANPINZOUJINXIANDAIRENDESHENGHUO, JINERMANZUXIANDAISHENGHUOFANGSHIDUOYANGXINGDAILAIDEDUIJINGSHENWENHUAXUQIUKUODAHUAZHIHOUCHANSHENGDEXIAOFEISHICHANG。

JINJINIAN, YUNNANSHENGJINUJIANGDIQUBUDUANCHUANGZUOBINGTUICHUTUCHULEYISHAOSHUMINZUYISHUWEIZAITIDEDAXING“YUANSHENGTAI”WENHUAYANCHU, XUDUOZHIMINGYISHUJIATONGGUOYISHUDEERCICHUANGZUOHEJIAGONG, SHIYUANBENYANGSHIDANYIDE“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”BUDUANZOUSHANGLEGEZHONGWUTAI。YONGXIANCHULAIDE“BENTU”GEQU、WUDAODASAIDENGYISHUSAISHIWEI“EDEDE”HE“DABIYA”DE“ZAISHENGCHAN”DAJIANLEPINGTAI。YISHUJIATONGGUOXIANDAIYISHUDECHUANGZUOSHOUFASHIYUANSHIYISHUYUXIANDAIYISHUSIWEI、YISHUBIAOXIANFANGSHIBUDUANZHENGHEERCHANSHENGXINDEYISHU“ZUOPIN”, MANZULEDANGXIADAZHONGSHIYEZHONGDEYISHUJIAZHIGUAN。

顶呱刮彩票网ZHEIZHONGTONGGUO“YISHUJIA”DUIYUANBENDANYIDEMINZUMINJIANYISHUJINXINGERCICHUANGZUOHOUCHENGXIANZAIDANGDAIDAZHONGSHIYEZHONGDEZUOFA, BUJINSHIMINZUMINJIANYISHUYIBUTONGDEFANGSHIRONGRUDAOMINZHONGDEXIANSHISHENGHUOZHONG, ERQIEWEIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANDEZHUTIDAILAILEFENGHOUDEJINGJIXIAOYI, GAISHANLETAMENDESHENGHUOZHUANGKUANG, JIFALETAMENCANYUCHUANCHENGYUBAOHUDEREQING, BUSHIWEICUJINFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANCHUANCHENGYUBAOHU、FAZHANDEYOUXIAOTUJINGZHIYI。

四、结语

在多重语境下, 对非物质文化遗产进行“再生产”成为了当下民族艺术持续生存的路径之一, 传统的“艺术文本被从其原本的背景中提取出来, 然后重新插入到新的全球背景中并重新解释。”传统民族艺术与现代艺术思维逻辑的相遇, 我者与他者文化形态及意识形态的相互杂糅并进行互动的建构, 使得原始艺术的生存场域变得“后现代”化。在多重语境互动下, 不同语境中的怒族非物质文化遗产“哦得得”和“达比亚”的形态及功能都在发生着变化, 民族艺术“哦得得”和“达比亚”在各种社会权利的互动与嫁接中通过不断的“解构-建构”而存在于“后民族艺术”的社会关系中, “成为本地人与他者共谋中既体现差异实现自我认同又迎合他者进入消费市场的大众文化消费符号。”

 

ZHUSHI

①汪欣: 《对非物质文化遗产生产性保护理念的认识》,《艺苑》2011 年第2 期。

②[英]莫利; 罗宾斯: 《认同的空间: 全球媒介、电子世界景观和文化边界》,司艳译,南京: 南京大学出版社,2001年版,第154 页。

③魏美仙: 《多重语境中的花腰傣服饰———以大沐浴为例的人类学解读》,《云南艺术学院学报》2007 年第3 期。

 

【作者简介】顶呱刮彩票网周园, 南京大学历史学院博士研究生。

【YUANWENLAIYUAN】《YUNNANMINZUDAXUEXUEBAO(ZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEBAN)》2017NIANDI3QI。